Fishing for flies: testing the efficacy of “stink stations” for promoting blow flies as pollinators in mango orchards




blow flies, Calliphoridae, Diptera, pollination, carrion, mango, hover fly, Syrphidae


Pollinator communities are composed of diverse groups of insects, with radically different life histories and resource needs. Blow flies are known to visit a variety of economically important crop plants. Larval blow flies develop by feeding on decaying animals. Some fruit growers are known to place carrion on farms during the flowering season to attract adult blow flies (Calliphoridae). However, the efficacy of these “stink stations” has not been tested. We conducted a series of experiments to determine: 1) if stink stations promote the abundance of blow flies in mango orchards (Mangifera indica L.), 2) if any increases in the abundance of flies acts to promote pollination and fruit set in Australian mango orchards. Farms with stink stations had approximately three times more flies than control farms. However, the increased abundance of blow flies did not result in increased fruit set. Although stink stations increased the abundance of blow flies, we found no evidence that their use improves mango yield. This may be due to pollination saturation by a highly abundant native hover fly, Mesembrius bengalensis (Syrphidae), during our study. We hypothesize that stink stations may only be beneficial in years or regions where other pollinators are less abundant.


Albrecht M, Schmid B, Hautier Y, Müller CB (2012) Diverse pollinator communities enhance plant reproductive success. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279:4845–4852.

Alqarni AS, Ahmed KN, Hannan MA, Ghose GK, Munshi JL (2017) Flies for the pollination of greenhouse mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) in the subtropical Iriomote Island, Japan. Journal of the Asiatic Society Bangladesh, Science 43:135–141.

Ananthakrishnan TN (1993) The role of thrips in pollination. Current Science 65:262–264. [online] URL: (accessed 6 April 2022).

Anderson NT, Underwood JP, Rahman MM, Robson A, Walsh KB (2019) Estimation of fruit load in mango orchards: tree sampling considerations and use of machine vision and satellite imagery. Precision Agriculture 20:823–839.

Australian Tree Crop (2020) Time flies when you’re pollinating. Australian Tree Crop [online] URL: (accessed 10 February 2022).

Australian Tree Crop (2022) Breeding flies to lift pollination rates. Australian Tree Crop [online] URL: (accessed 27 June 2022).

Aviron S, Herzog F, Klaus I, Schüpbach B, Jeanneret P (2011) Effects of Wildflower Strip Quality, Quantity, and Connectivity on Butterfly Diversity in a Swiss Arable Landscape. Restoration Ecology 19:500–508.

Balzan M v., Bocci G, Moonen A-C (2014) Augmenting flower trait diversity in wildflower strips to optimise the conservation of arthropod functional groups for multiple agroecosystem services. Journal of Insect Conservation 2014 18:4 18:713–728.

Bartomeus I, Cariveau DP, Harrison T, Winfree R (2018) On the inconsistency of pollinator species traits for predicting either response to land-use change or functional contribution. Oikos 127:306–315.

Bartomeus I, Park MG, Gibbs J, Danforth BN, Lakso AN, Winfree R (2013) Biodiversity ensures plant-pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change. Ecology Letters 16:1331–1338.

Bernauer OM, Tierney SM, Cook JM (2022) Efficiency and effectiveness of native bees and honey bees as pollinators of apples in New South Wales orchards. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 337:108063.

Biddinger DJ, Rajotte EG (2015) Integrated pest and pollinator management — adding a new dimension to an accepted paradigm. Current Opinion in Insect Science 10:204–209.

Blüthgen N, Klein AM (2011) Functional complementarity and specialisation: The role of biodiversity in plant–pollinator interactions. Basic and Applied Ecology 12:282–291.

Bukovinszky T, Rikken I, Evers S, Wäckers FL, Biesmeijer JC, Prins HHT, Kleijn D (2017) Effects of pollen species composition on the foraging behaviour and offspring performance of the mason bee Osmia bicornis (L.). Basic and Applied Ecology 18:21–30.

Butterworth NJ, Byrne PG, Wallman JF (2019) The Blow Fly Waltz: Field and Laboratory Observations of Novel and Complex Dipteran Courtship Behavior. Journal of Insect Behaviour 32:109–119.

Byrd JH, Butler JF (1997) Effects of Temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Development. Journal of Medical Entomology 34:353-358.

Campbell AJ, Biesmeijer JC, Varma V, Wäckers FL (2012) Realising multiple ecosystem services based on the response of three beneficial insect groups to floral traits and trait diversity. Basic and Applied Ecology 13:363–370.

Carvalheiro LG, Seymour CL, Nicolson SW, Veldtman R (2012) Creating patches of native flowers facilitates crop pollination in large agricultural fields: mango as a case study. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:1373–1383.

Cook DF, Voss SC, Finch JT, Rader RC, Cook JM, Spurr CJ (2020) The Role of Flies as Pollinators of Horticultural Crops: An Australian Case Study with Worldwide Relevance. Insects 11:341.

Cunningham SA, Evans MJ, Neave M, Armstrong J, Barton PS, Dafni EA (2019) Pollination and resource limitation as interacting constraints on almond fruit set. Plant Biology 22:113-119

Dag A, Degani C, Gazit S, Smith RH (2009) Gene flow in mango orchards and its impact on yield. Acta Horticulturae 820: 347–350.

Dag A, Eisenstein D, Degani C, El-Batsri R, Zelig M, Ziv G, Gazit S (1997) Tommy Atkins mango as pollenizer for “Lily.” Acta Horticulturae 455: 209–216.

Dainese M, Martin EA, Aizen MA, Albrecht M, Bartomeus I, Bommarco R, Carvalheiro LG, Chaplin-Kramer R, Gagic V, Garibaldi LA, Ghazoul J, Grab H, Jonsson M, Karp DS, Kennedy CM, Kleijn D, Kremen C, Landis DA, Letourneau DK, Marini L, Poveda K, Rader R, Smith HG, Tscharntke T, Andersson GKS, Badenhausser I, Baensch S, Bezerra ADM, Bianchi FJJA, Boreux V, Bretagnolle V, Caballero-Lopez B, Cavigliasso P, Ćetković A, Chacoff NP, Classen A, Cusser S, da Silva E Silva FD, Arjen De Groot G, Dudenhöffer JH, Ekroos J, Fijen T, Franck P, Freitas BM, Garratt MPD, Gratton C, Hipólito J, Holzschuh A, Hunt L, Iverson AL, Jha S, Keasar T, Kim TN, Kishinevsky M, Klatt BK, Klein AM, Krewenka KM, Krishnan S, Larsen AE, Lavigne C, Liere H, Maas B, Mallinger RE, Pachon EM, Martínez-Salinas A, Meehan TD, Mitchell MGE, Molina GAR, Nesper M, Nilsson L, O’Rourke ME, Peters MK, Plećaš M, Potts SG, Ramos D de L, Rosenheim JA, Rundlöf M, Rusch A, Sáez A, Scheper J, Schleuning M, Schmack JM, Sciligo AR, Seymour C, Stanley DA, Stewart R, Stout JC, Sutter L, Takada MB, Taki H, Tamburini G, Tschumi M, Viana BF, Westphal C, Willcox BK, Wratten SD, Yoshioka A, Zaragoza-Trello C, Zhang W, Zou Y, Steffan-Dewenter I (2019) A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production. Science Advances 5(10).

Davenport TL (2009) Reproductive physiology (Ed.), The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses, Litz RE (ed), 2nd edn. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

David AS, Kaser JM, Morey AC, Roth AM, Andow DA (2013) Release of genetically engineered insects: a framework to identify potential ecological effects. Ecology and Evolution 3:4000–4015.

Delignette-Muller ML, Dutang C (2015) fitdistrplus: An R Package for Fitting Distributions. Journal of Statistical Software 64:1–34.

Department of Agriculture and Fisheries QG (2022) Kensington Pride. [online] URL: (accessed 1 April 2022).

Dixon KW (2009) Pollination and restoration. Science 325:571–573.

Dominiak BC, Westcott AE, Barchia IM (2003) Release of sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at Sydney, Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 43:519–528.

Egan PA, Dicks L v., Hokkanen HMT, Stenberg JA (2020) Delivering Integrated Pest and Pollinator Management (IPPM). Trends in Plant Science 25:577–589.

Ekroos J, Olsson O, Rundlöf M, Wätzold F, Smith HG (2014) Optimizing agri-environment schemes for biodiversity, ecosystem services or both? Biological Conservation 172:65–71.

Ellis CR, Feltham H, Park K, Hanley N, Goulson D (2017) Seasonal complementary in pollinators of soft-fruit crops. Basic and Applied Ecology 19:45–55.

Feltham H, Park K, Minderman J, Goulson D (2015) Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops. Ecology and Evolution 5:3523–3530.

Finch JTD, Cook JM (2020) Flies on vacation: evidence for the migration of Australian Syrphidae (Diptera). Ecological Entomology 45: 896-900

Free JB (1973) Insect Pollination of Crops, 2nd edn. Academic Press, London.

Free JB, Williams IH (1976) Insect pollination of Anacardium occidentalis L., Mangifera indica L., Blighia sopida Koenig and Persea americana Mill. Tropical Agricuture 53:125–139.

Gabre RM, Adham FK, Chi H (2005) Life table of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Acta Oecologica 27:179–183.

Gaffney A, Bohman B, Quarrell SR, Brown PH, Allen GR (2018) Frequent Insect Visitors Are Not Always Pollen Carriers in Hybrid Carrot Pollination. Insects 9:61.

Garibaldi LA, Carvalheiro LG, Vaissière BE, Gemmill-Herren B, Hipólito J, Freitas BM, Ngo HT, Azzu N, Sáez A, Åström J, An J, Blochtein B, Buchori D, García FJC, Silva FO da, Devkota K, Ribeiro M de F, Freitas L, Gaglianone MC, Goss M, Irshad M, Kasina M, Filho AJSP, Kiill LHP, Kwapong P, Parra GN, Pires C, Pires V, Rawal RS, Rizali A, Saraiva AM, Veldtman R, Viana BF, Witter S, Zhang H (2016) Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms. Science 351:388–391.

Garibaldi LA, Steffan-Dewenter I, Winfree R, Aizen MA, Bommarco R, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Carvalheiro LG, Harder LD, Afik O, Bartomeus I, Benjamin F, Boreux V, Cariveau D, Chacoff NP, Dudenhöffer JH, Freitas BM, Ghazoul J, Greenleaf S, Hipólito J, Holzschuh A, Howlett B, Isaacs R, Javorek SK, Kennedy CM, Krewenka KM, Krishnan S, Mandelik Y, Mayfield MM, Motzke I, Munyuli T, Nault BA, Otieno M, Petersen J, Pisanty G, Potts SG, Rader R, Ricketts TH, Rundlöf M, Seymour CL, Schüepp C, Szentgyörgyi H, Taki H, Tscharntke T, Vergara CH, Viana BF, Wanger TC, Westphal C, Williams N, Klein AM (2013) Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance. Science 339:1608–11.

Girard M, Chagnon M, Fournier V (2012) Pollen diversity collected by honey bees in the vicinity of Vaccinium spp. crops and its importance for colony development. Botany 90:545–555.

Grab H, Branstetter MG, Amon N, Urban-Mead KR, Park MG, Gibbs J, Blitzer EJ, Poveda K, Loeb G, Danforth BN (2019) Agriculturally dominated landscapes reduce bee phylogenetic diversity and pollination services. Science 363:282–284.

Grassberger M, Frank C (2004) Initial Study of Arthropod Succession on Pig Carrion in a Central European Urban Habitat. Journal of Medical Entomology 41:511–523.

Hadura AH, Sundharavalli R, Azulia N, Hamdan J (2018) Life table of forensically important blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Tropical Biomedicine 35:413–422.

Hanley ME, Franco M, Dean CE, Franklin EL, Harris HR, Haynes AG, Rapson SR, Rowse G, Thomas KC, Waterhouse BR, Knight ME, Th KC (2011) Increased bumblebee abundance along the margins of a mass flowering crop: evidence for pollinator spill-over. Oikos 120:1618-1624.

Herrera CM (1987) Components of Pollinator “Quality”: Comparative Analysis of a Diverse Insect Assemblage. Oikos 50:79.

Höcherl N, Siede R, IIllies I, Gätschenberger H, Tautz J (2012) Evaluation of the nutritive value of maize for honey bees. Journal of insect physiology 58:278–285.

Holzschuh A, Dainese M, Gonz Alez-Varo JP, Mudri-Stojni S, Riedinger V, Rundl€ M, Scheper J, Wickens JB, Wickens VJ, Bommarco R, Kleijn D, Potts SG, Roberts SPM, Smith HG, Vil M, Vuji A, Steffan-Dewenter I (2016) Mass-flowering crops dilute pollinator abundance in agricultural landscapes across Europe. Ecology Letters 19:1228-1236.

Holzschuh A, Dormann CF, Tscharntke T, Steffan-Dewenter I (2011) Expansion of mass-flowering crops leads to transient pollinator dilution and reduced wild plant pollination. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278:3444–3451.

Hooper DU, Chapin FS, Ewel JJ, Hector A, Inchausti P, Lavorel S, Lawton JH, Lodge DM, Loreau M, Naeem S, Schmid B, Setälä H, Symstad AJ, Vandermeer J, Wardle DA (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75:3–35.

Howlett BG (2012) Hybrid carrot seed crop pollination by the fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Applied Entomology 136:421–430.

Howlett B, Davidson M, Mathers D, Pyke N (2013) Hedgerow plants to support crop pollination and pest management. The Wētā 46:3–12. [online] URL: (accessed 12 October 2021).

Howlett BG, Evans LJ, Pattemore DE, Nelson WR (2017) Stigmatic pollen delivery by flies and bees: Methods comparing multiple species within a pollinator community. Basic and Applied Ecology 19:19–25.

Huda AN, Salmah MRC, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Razak MNA (2015) Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators. Journal of Insect Science 15(1): 113.

Hudewenz A, Pufal G, Bögeholz A-L, Klein A-M (2014) Cross-pollination benefits differ among oilseed rape varieties. The Journal of Agricultural Science 152(5):770-778.

Hughes RD, Nicholas WL (1974) The Spring Migration of the Bushfly (Musca vetustissima Walk.): Evidence of Displacement Provided by Natural Population Markers Including Parasitism. The Journal of Animal Ecology 43:411.

Isaacs R, Williams N, Ellis J, Pitts-Singer TL, Bommarco R, Vaughan M (2017) Integrated Crop Pollination: Combining strategies to ensure stable and sustainable yields of pollination-dependent crops. Basic and Applied Ecology 22:44–60.

Ives AR, Carpenter SR (2007) Stability and Diversity of Ecosystems. Science 317:58–62.

Kaiser-Bunbury CN, Muff S, Memmott J, Müller CB, Caflisch A (2010) The robustness of pollination networks to the loss of species and interactions: a quantitative approach incorporating pollinator behaviour. Ecology Letters 13:442–452.

Kajikawa Y, Wang B, Yang J (2010) A multi-time scale Australian monsoon index. International Journal of Climatology 30:1114–1120.

Kearns CA (2002) Flies and flowers: an enduring partnership. Wings (The Xerces Society) 25:3–8.

Kendall LK, Gagic V, Evans LJ, Cutting BT, Scalzo J, Hanusch Y, Jones J, Rocchetti M, Sonter C, Keir M, Rader R, Liam Kendall CK (2020) Self-compatible blueberry cultivars require fewer floral visits to maximize fruit production than a partially self-incompatible cultivar. Journal of Applied Ecology 57(12): 2454-2462.

Kevan P (2002) Flowers, pollination, and the associated diversity of flies. Biodiversity 3:16–18.

Klein A-M, Cunningham SA, Bos M, Steffan-Dewenter I (2008) Advances in pollination ecology from tropical plantation crops. Ecology 89:935–943.

Knop E, Kleijn D, Herzog F, Schmid B (2006) Effectiveness of the Swiss agri-environment scheme in promoting biodiversity. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:120–127.

Kobayashi K, Tsukamoto S, Tanaka A, Niikura S, Ohsawa R (2010) Selective flower visitation behavior by pollinators in a radish F1 seed production field. Breeding Science 60:203–211.

Korpela EL, Hyvönen T, Lindgren S, Kuussaari M (2013) Can pollination services, species diversity and conservation be simultaneously promoted by sown wildflower strips on farmland? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 179:18–24.

Kratschmer S, Pachinger B, Schwantzer M, Paredes D, Guzmán G, Goméz JA, Entrenas JA, Guernion M, Burel F, Nicolai A, Fertil A, Popescu D, Macavei L, Hoble A, Bunea C, Kriechbaum M, Zaller JG, Winter S (2019) Response of wild bee diversity, abundance, and functional traits to vineyard inter-row management intensity and landscape diversity across Europe. Ecology and Evolution 9:4103–4115.

Kremen C, Williams NM, Thorp RW (2002) Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification. Proceedings of the National Accademy of Sciences 99:16812–16816.

Lampinen BD, Tombesi S, Metcalf SG, Dejong TM (2011) Spur behaviour in almond trees: relationships between previous year spur leaf area, fruit bearing and mortality. Tree Physiology 31:700–706.

Larson BMH, Kevan PG, Inouye DW (2001) Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators. The Canadian Entomologist 133:439–465.

Loreau M, Naeem S, Inchausti P, Bengtsson J, Grime JP, Hector A, Hooper DU, Huston MA, Raffaelli D, Schmid B, Tilman D, Wardle DA (2001) Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: Current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294:804–808.

Lundin O, Rundlöf M, Jonsson M, Bommarco R, Williams NM (2021) Integrated pest and pollinator management – expanding the concept. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 19:283–291.

Macinnis AE, Higley LG (2020) Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia regina, Lucilia sericata, and Chrysomya rufifacies. Environmental Entomology 49:1473–1479.

Mallik PC (1957) Morphology and biology of the mango flower. Indian Journal of Horticulture 4:1–23.

Marshall SA (2012) Flies: the natural history and diversity of Diptera. Firefly Books. Ontario, Canada.

Mashood Aliyu O (2008) Compatibility and fruit-set in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Euphytica 160:25–33.

Mateos-Fierro Z (2020) Sustainable production of sweet cherry: maximising benefits from ecosystem services. PhD-Thesis. University of Worcester, Worcester, UK [online] URL: (accessed 4 March 2022).

McGregor SE (1976) Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook. p 496. [online] URL: (accessed 6 October 2021).

Memmott J, Waser NM, Price M v. (2004) Tolerance of pollination networks to species extinctions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 271:2605–2611.

Mukherjee SK (1953) The mango—its botany, cultivation, uses and future improvement, especially as observed in india. Economic Botany 1953 7:2 7:130–162.

Muñoz AE, Plantegenest M, Amouroux P, Zaviezo T (2021) Native flower strips increase visitation by non-bee insects to avocado flowers and promote yield. Basic and Applied Ecology 56: 369-378.

Orford KA, Vaughan IP, Memmott J (2015) The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282:20142934.

Paula MC, Morishita GM, Cavarson CH, Gonc¸alves CR, Tavares PRA, Lica Mendonc¸a A, S Uarez YR, Antonialli-Junior WF (2016) Action of Ants on Vertebrate Carcasses and Blow Flies (Calliphoridae). Journal of Medical Entomology 53:1283–1291.

Payne A, Walsh K, Subedi P, Jarvis D (2014) Estimating mango crop yield using image analysis using fruit at ‘stone hardening’ stage and night time imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 100:160–167.

Perez-Banon C, Hurtado P, Garc Ia-Gras E, Rojo S (2013) SEM Studies on Immature Stages of the Drone Flies (Diptera, Syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758). Microscopy and research technique 76:853–861.

Potts SG, Imperatriz-Fonseca V, Ngo HT, Aizen MA, Biesmeijer JC, Breeze TD, Dicks L v., Garibaldi LA, Hill R, Settele J, Vanbergen AJ (2016) Safeguarding pollinators and their values to human well-being. Nature 540:220–229.

Potts S, Petanidou T, RobertsS, O’Toole C, Hulbert A, Wimer P (2006) Plant-pollinator biodiversity and pollination services in a complex Mediterranean landscape. Biological Conservation 129:519–529.

R Core Team (2021) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. [online] URL:

Rader R, Bartomeus I, Garibaldi LA, Garratt MPD, Howlett BG, Winfree R, Cunningham SA, Mayfield MM, Arthur AD, Andersson GKS, Bommarco R, Brittain C, Carvalheiro LG, Chacoff NP, Entling MH, Foully B, Freitas BM, Gemmill-Herren B, Ghazoul J, Griffin SR, Gross CL, Herbertsson L, Herzog F, Hipólito J, Jaggar S, Jauker F, Klein A-M, Kleijn D, Krishnan S, Lemos CQ, Lindström SAM, Mandelik Y, Monteiro VM, Nelson W, Nilsson L, Pattemore DE, Pereira N de O, Pisanty G, Potts SG, Reemer M, Rundlöf M, Sheffield CS, Scheper J, Schüepp C, Smith HG, Stanley DA, Stout JC, Szentgyörgyi H, Taki H, Vergara CH, Viana BF, Woyciechowski M (2016) Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113:146–51.

Rader R, Cunningham SA, Howlett BG, Inouye DW (2019) Non-Bee Insects as Visitors and Pollinators of Crops: Biology, Ecology and Management. Annual Review of Entomology 65:391-407.

Rader R, Edwards W, Westcott DA, Cunningham SA, Howlett BG (2011) Pollen transport differs among bees and flies in a human-modified landscape. Diversity and Distributions 17:519–529.

Rader R, Howlett BG, Cunningham SA, Westcott DA, Newstrom-Lloyd LE, Walker MK, Teulon DAJ, Edwards W (2009) Alternative pollinator taxa are equally efficient but not as effective as the honeybee in a mass flowering crop. Journal of Applied Ecology 46:1080–1087.

Ramírez F, Davenport TL (2010) Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flowering physiology. Scientia Horticulturae 126:65–72.

Ramírez F, Davenport TL (2016) Mango (Mangifera indica L.) pollination: A review. Scientia Horticulturae 203:158–168.

Rollin O, Bretagnolle V, Decourtye A, Aptel J, Michel N, Vaissière BE, Henry M (2013) Differences of floral resource use between honey bees and wild bees in an intensive farming system. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 179:78–86.

RStudio Team (2020) RStudio: Integrated Development for R.

Rundlöf M, Lundin O, Bommarco R (2018) Annual flower strips support pollinators and potentially enhance red clover seed yield. Ecology and Evolution 8:7974–7985.

Russo L, DeBarros N, Yang S, Shea K, Mortensen D (2013) Supporting crop pollinators with floral resources: network-based phenological matching. Ecology and Evolution 3:3125–3140.

Senapathi D, Fründ J, Albrecht M, Garratt MPD, Kleijn D, Pickles BJ, Potts SG, An J, Andersson GKS, Bänsch S, Basu P, Benjamin F, Bezerra ADM, Bhattacharya R, Biesmeijer JC, Blaauw B, Blitzer EJ, Brittain CA, Carvalheiro LG, Cariveau DP, Chakraborty P, Chatterjee A, Chatterjee S, Cusser S, Danforth BN, Degani E, Freitas BM, Garibaldi LA, Geslin B, de Groot GA, Harrison T, Howlett B, Isaacs R, Jha S, Klatt BK, Krewenka K, Leigh S, Lindström SAM, Mandelik Y, McKerchar M, Park M, Pisanty G, Rader R, Reemer M, Rundlöf M, Smith B, Smith HG, Silva PN, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T, Webber S, Westbury DB, Westphal C, Wickens JB, Wickens VJ, Winfree R, Zhang H, Klein AM (2021) Wild insect diversity increases inter-annual stability in global crop pollinator communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 288

Sharma S, Abbas SR, Shukia RP, Sharma S (1998) An easy and quick method of breeding flies for pollination of mango blossoms. Insect Environment 4:76–77.

Signorell et. mult. al. (2021) DescTools: Tools for descriptive statistics.

Singh G, Cook JM, Spooner-Hart RN, Makinson JC Pollinators on the edge? The spatio-temporal distribution of diurnal and nocturnal floral visitors in mango orchards and its effect on fruit set. Unpublished

Sjödin NE (2007) Pollinator behavioural responses to grazing intensity. Biodiversity and Conservation 16:2103–2121.

Sontigun N, Sukontason KL, Klong-Klaew T, Sanit S, Samerjai C, Somboon P, Thanapornpoonpong SN, Amendt J, Sukontason K (2018) Bionomics of the oriental latrine fly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): temporal fluctuation and reproductive potential. Parasites and Vectors 11:1–12.

Sousa J, Pigozzo CM, Viana F (2010) Polinização de manga (Mangifera indica L.—Anacardiaceae) variedade Tommy Atkins no Vale do São Francisco. Oecologia Australis 14:165–173.

Ssymank A, Kearns CA, Pape T, Thompson FC (2008) Pollinating Flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production. Biodiversity 9:86–89.

Stanley DA, Stout JC (2014) Pollinator sharing between mass-flowering oilseed rape and co-flowering wild plants: implications for wild plant pollination. Plant Ecology 215:315–325.

Stelinski LL, Aronne G, Prasifka JR, Mallinger RE, Portlas ZM, Hulke BS, Fugate KK, Paradis T, Hampton ME, Carter CJ (2018) Using Nectar-Related Traits to Enhance Crop-Pollinator Interactions. Frontiers in Plant Science 9.

Stern RA, Goldway M, Zisovich AH, Shafir S, Dag A (2004) Sequential introduction of honeybee colonies increases cross-pollination, fruit-set and yield of “Spadona” pear (Pyrus communis L.). The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 79:652-658.

Stewart RIA, Andersson GKS, Brönmark C, Klatt BK, Hansson LA, Zülsdorff V, Smith HG (2017) Ecosystem services across the aquatic–terrestrial boundary: Linking ponds to pollination. Basic and Applied Ecology 18:13–20.

Subbaiah CC (2022) Fruiting and abscission patterns in cashew. The Journal of Agricultural Science 100(2):423–427.

Sutter L, Jeanneret P, Bartual AM, Bocci G, Albrecht M (2017) Enhancing plant diversity in agricultural landscapes promotes both rare bees and dominant crop-pollinating bees through complementary increase in key floral resources. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1856–1864.

Toivonen M, Karimaa AE, Herzon I, Kuussaari M (2022) Flies are important pollinators of mass-flowering caraway and respond to landscape and floral factors differently from honeybees. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 323:107698.

Trischler C, Kern R, Egelhaaf M (2010) Chasing behavior and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: Flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 4:20.

Varun Rajan V, Rami Reddy P v (2019) A dead heat in pollination race: A comparative evaluation of the efficiency of a fly (Chrysomya megacephala) and a bee (Apis florea) in mango pollination. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 7:1087–1091. [online] URL: (accessed 1 June 2022).

Wallman JF (2001) A key to the adults of species of blowflies in southern Australia known or suspected to breed in carrion. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 15:433–437.

Wang B, Yim So-Young, Lee J-Y, Liu J, Ha K-J (2014) Future change of Asian-Australian monsoon under RCP 4.5 anthropogenic warming scenario. Climate Dynamics 42:83–100.

Whitehead PJ, Wilson BA, Bowman DMJS (1990) Conservation of Coastal Wetlands of the Northern Territory of Australia: The Mary River Floodplain. Biological Conservation 52:85–111.

Willcox BK, Howlett BG, Robson AJ, Cutting B, Evans L, Jesson L, Kirkland L, Jean-Meyzonnier M, Potdevin V, Saunders ME, Rader R (2019) Evaluating the taxa that provide shared pollination services across multiple crops and regions. Scientific Reports 9:13538.

Williams NM, Ward KL, Pope N, Isaacs R, Wilson J, May EA, Ellis J, Daniels J, Pence A, Ullmann K, Peters J (2015) Native wildflower plantings support wild bee abundance and diversity in agricultural landscapes across the United States. Ecological Applications, 25(8): 2119–213.

Winfree R, Reilly JR, Bartomeus I, Cariveau DP, Williams NM, Gibbs J (2018) Species turnover promotes the importance of bee diversity for crop pollination at regional scales. Science 359:791–793.

Woodard SH, Jha S (2017) Wild bee nutritional ecology: predicting pollinator population dynamics, movement, and services from floral resources. Current Opinion in Insect Science 21:83–90.

Woodcock BA, Edwards M, Redhead J, Meek WR, Nuttall P, Falk S, Nowakowski M, Pywell RF (2013) Crop flower visitation by honeybees, bumblebees and solitary bees: Behavioural differences and diversity responses to landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 171:1–8.

Woodcock BA, Garratt MPD, Powney GD, Shaw RF, Osborne JL, Soroka J, Lindström SAM, Stanley D, Ouvrard P, Edwards ME, Jauker F, McCracken ME, Zou Y, Potts SG, Rundlöf M, Noriega JA, Greenop A, Smith HG, Bommarco R, van der Werf W, Stout JC, Steffan-Dewenter I, Morandin L, Bullock JM, Pywell RF (2019) Meta-analysis reveals that pollinator functional diversity and abundance enhance crop pollination and yield. Nature Communications 10:1481.

Wotton KR, Gao B, Menz MHM, Morris RKA, Ball SG, Lim KS, Reynolds DR, Hu G, Chapman JW (2019) Mass Seasonal Migrations of Hoverflies Provide Extensive Pollination and Crop Protection Services. Current Biology 29:2167-2173.e5.

Yadav BP, Narangalakar AL, Shinde BD, Mehendale SK, Desai VS, Parulekar YR, Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth B (2018) Evaluation of Different Baiting Materials for Pollinators in Mango. Advanced Agricultural Research & Technology Journal Vol. II. Issue 1. [online] URL:,issue-i/AARJ_2_1_14_Shinde%20BD.pdf

Zeileis A, Hothorn T (2002) Diagnostic Checking in Regression Relationships. R News 2:7–10.

Zhang Y, Wang Y, Sun J, Hu G, Wang M, Amendt J, Wang J (2019) Temperature-dependent development of the blow fly Chrysomya pinguis and its significance in estimating postmortem interval. Royal Society Open Science 6: 190003

何寒 (2012) Pollination method of mango by breeding flies in flowering phase for propagation. [online] URL: (accessed 10 February 2022).

blowfly on mango



How to Cite

Finch, J., Gilpin, A.-M., & Cook, J. (2023). Fishing for flies: testing the efficacy of “stink stations” for promoting blow flies as pollinators in mango orchards. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 33, 79–100.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

  • Jeff Ollerton, Judith Trunschke, Kayri Havens, Patricia Landaverde-González, Alexander Keller, Amy-Marie Gilpin, André Rodrigo Rech, Gudryan J. Baronio, Benjamin J. Phillips, Chris Mackin, Dara A. Stanley, Erin Treanore, Ellen Baker, Ellen L. Rotheray, Emily Erickson, Felix Fornoff, Francis Q. Brearley, Gavin Ballantyne, Graziella Iossa, Graham N. Stone, Ignasi Bartomeus, Jenni A. Stockan, Johana Leguizamón, Kit Prendergast, Lisa Rowley, Manuela Giovanetti, Raquel de Oliveira Bueno, Renate A. Wesselingh, Rachel Mallinger, Sally Edmondson, Scarlett R. Howard, Sara D. Leonhardt, Sandra V. Rojas-Nossa, Maisie Brett, Tatiana Joaqui, Reuber Antoniazzi, Victoria J. Burton, Hui-Hui Feng, Zhi-Xi Tian, Qi Xu, Chuan Zhang, Chang-Li Shi, Shuang-Quan Huang, Lorna J. Cole, Leila Bendifallah, Emilie E. Ellis, Stein Joar Hegland, Sara Straffon Díaz, Tonya Allen Lander, Antonia V. Mayr, Richard Dawson, Maxime Eeraerts, W. Scott Armbruster, Becky Walton, Noureddine Adjlane, Steven Falk, Luis Mata, Anya Goncalves Geiger, Claire Carvell, Claire Wallace, Fabrizia Ratto, Marta Barberis, Fay Kahane, Stuart Connop, Anthonie Stip, Maria Rosangela Sigrist, Nicolas J. Vereecken, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Katherine Baldock, Sarah E. J. Arnold, Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020 , Journal of Pollination Ecology: Vol. 32 (2022)

Similar Articles

<< < 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.