Journal of Pollination Ecology 2022-07-19T05:59:26-07:00 JPE senior editors Open Journal Systems <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"> Journal of Pollination Ecology (ASBL) </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">is a non-profit, </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">o</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">pen access, </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">peer-reviewed </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">journal that aims to promote the exchange of original knowledge and research in any area of pollination and pollinator behaviour.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The associated </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pollination Magazine </a></span> publishes short lay summaries of all articles published in JPE. You can also find interesting stories about pollination there.</p> </div> Stem-nesting Hymenoptera in Irish farmland: empirical evaluation of artificial trap nests as tools for fundamental research and pollinator conservation 2022-05-31T10:43:35-07:00 Simon Hodge Irene Bottero Robin Dean Stephanie Maher Jane Stout <p>Insect pollinators are suffering global declines, necessitating the evaluation and development of methods for long-term monitoring and applied field research. Accordingly, this study evaluated the use of trap nests (“bee hotels”) as tools for investigating the ecology of cavity nesting Hymenoptera within Irish agricultural landscapes. Three trap nests consisting of 110 mm diameter plastic pipe containing 100 cardboard nest tubes of varying diameter were placed at eight apple orchards and eight oilseed rape sites and left in the field for five months. Sealed nest tubes occurred at 15 of the 16 sites, and in 77% of the 48 nests. However, only 7% of the 4800 individual nest tubes were sealed, and only 4% produced cavity-nesting Hymenoptera. Three cavity nesting bee species (<em>Hylaeus communis</em>, <em>Osmia bicornis</em>, <em>Megachile versicolor</em>) and two solitary wasp species (<em>Ancistrocerus trifasciatus, A.</em> <em>parietinus</em>) emerged from nest tubes. There were significant differences among species in terms of emergence date and the diameter of nest tubes from which they emerged, the latter allowing the calculation of niche width and niche overlap, and informing choice of tube size in future studies/conservation efforts. Trap nests, therefore, offer a valuable tool for fundamental ecological research and a model system for investigating interactions between stem-nesting species within their wider ecological networks. The ability of trap nests to actually increase farmland pollinator abundance and diversity as part of agri-environment schemes requires additional investigation. However, used in sufficient numbers, these trap nests provide valuable biogeographical data for cavity nesting Hymenoptera and offer a viable means for long term monitoring of these species in Irish farmland.</p> 2022-08-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Simon Hodge, Irene Bottero, Robin Dean, Stephanie Maher, Jane Stout What are the plant reproductive consequences of losing a nectar robber? 2021-11-14T00:20:50-08:00 Trevor Ledbetter Sarah Richman Rebecca Irwin Judith Bronstein <p>Pollinator declines worldwide are detrimental for plants. Given the negative effects that antagonisitc visitors, including nectar robbers, can sometimes inflict, might declines in their populations instead confer benefits? During the 1970s, reproductive biology of the Colorado columbine, <em>Aquilegia caerulea</em> (Ranunculaceae), was documented near Gothic, Colorado. At that time, <em>Bombus occidentalis</em>, the Western Bumble bee, was one of its many pollinators, but more commonly acted as its only known nectar robber. <em>Bombus occidentalis</em> abundance has declined precipitously throughout the Western USA since the 1970s. In 2016, we documented floral visitors at sites near those used in the original survey. We then experimentally quantified the effects of nectar robbing, allowing us to estimate the reproductive consequences of losing <em>B. occidentalis</em>. We also quantified the potential pollination services of muscid flies (Muscidae, Diptera). The floral visitor community was dramatically different in 2016 compared to the 1970s. <em>Bombus occidentalis</em> was infrequently observed, and nectar robbing was negligible. Our experiments suggested that a high level of nectar robbing would lead to significantly reduced fruit set, although not seeds per fruit. Fly visits to flowers were dramatically higher in 2016 compared to the 1970s. In the absence of bumble bees, muscid flies significantly reduced fruit set below the self-pollination rate. The negative effect of the increase in these flies likely outweighed any positive effects <em>A. caerulea</em> experienced from the absence of its nectar robber. Although the field observations were conducted in a single year, when interpreted in combination with our manipulative experiments, they suggest how <em>A. caerulea</em> may fare in a changing visitation landscape.</p> 2022-08-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Trevor A. Ledbetter, Sarah K. Richman, Rebecca E. Irwin, Judith L. Bronstein Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020 2022-03-23T23:53:33-07:00 Jeff Ollerton Judith Trunschke Kayri Havens Patricia Landaverde-González Alexander Keller Amy-Marie Gilpin André Rodrigo Rech Gudryan J. Baronio Benjamin J. Phillips Chris Mackin Dara A. Stanley Erin Treanore Ellen Baker Ellen L. Rotheray Emily Erickson Felix Fornoff Francis Q. Brearley Gavin Ballantyne Graziella Iossa Graham N. Stone Ignasi Bartomeus Jenni A. Stockan Johana Leguizamón Kit Prendergast Lisa Rowley Manuela Giovanetti Raquel de Oliveira Bueno Renate A. Wesselingh Rachel Mallinger Sally Edmondson Scarlett R. Howard Sara D. Leonhardt Sandra V. Rojas-Nossa Maisie Brett Tatiana Joaqui Reuber Antoniazzi Victoria J. Burton Hui-Hui Feng Zhi-Xi Tian Qi Xu Chuan Zhang Chang-Li Shi Shuang-Quan Huang Lorna J. Cole Leila Bendifallah Emilie E. Ellis Stein Joar Hegland Sara Straffon Díaz Tonya Allen Lander Antonia V. Mayr Richard Dawson Maxime Eeraerts W. Scott Armbruster Becky Walton Noureddine Adjlane Steven Falk Luis Mata Anya Goncalves Geiger Claire Carvell Claire Wallace Fabrizia Ratto Marta Barberis Fay Kahane Stuart Connop Anthonie Stip Maria Rosangela Sigrist Nicolas J. Vereecken Alexandra-Maria Klein Katherine Baldock Sarah E. J. Arnold <p>During the main COVID-19 global pandemic lockdown period of 2020 an impromptu set of pollination ecologists came together via social media and personal contacts to carry out standardised surveys of the flower visits and plants in gardens. The surveys involved 67 rural, suburban and urban gardens, of various sizes, ranging from 61.18° North in Norway to 37.96° South in Australia, resulting in a data set of 25,174 rows, with each row being a unique interaction record for that date/site/plant species, and comprising almost 47,000 visits to flowers, as well as records of flowers that were not visited by pollinators, for over 1,000 species and varieties belonging to more than 460 genera and 96 plant families. The more than 650 species of flower visitors belong to 12 orders of invertebrates and four of vertebrates. In this first publication from the project, we present a brief description of the data and make it freely available for any researchers to use in the future, the only restriction being that they cite this paper in the first instance. The data generated from these global surveys will provide scientific evidence to help us understand the role that private gardens (in urban, rural and suburban areas) can play in conserving insect pollinators and identify management actions to enhance their potential.</p> 2022-07-27T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jeff Ollerton, Judith Trunschke, Kayri Havens, Patricia Landaverde-González, Alexander Keller, Amy-Marie Gilpin, André Rodrigo Rech, Gudryan J. Baronio, Benjamin J. Phillips, Chris Mackin, Dara A. Stanley, Erin Treanore, Ellen Baker, Ellen L. Rotheray, Emily Erickson, Felix Fornoff, Francis Q. Brearley, Gavin Ballantyne, Graziella Iossa, Graham N. Stone, Ignasi Bartomeus, Jenni A. Stockan, Johana Leguizamón, Kit Prendergast, Lisa Rowley, Manuela Giovanetti, Raquel de Oliveira Bueno, Renate A. Wesselingh, Rachel Mallinger, Sally Edmondson, Scarlett R. Howard, Sara D. Leonhardt, Sandra V. Rojas-Nossa, Maisie Brett, Tatiana Joaqui, Reuber Antoniazzi, Victoria J. Burton, Hui-Hui Feng, Zhi-Xi Tian, Qi Xu, Chuan Zhang, Chang-Li Shi, Shuang-Quan Huang, Lorna J. Cole, Leila Bendifallah, Emilie E. Ellis, Stein Joar Hegland, Sara Straffon Díaz, Tonya Allen Lander, Antonia V. Mayr, Richard Dawson, Maxime Eeraerts, W. Scott Armbruster, Becky Walton, Noureddine Adjlane, Steven Falk, Luis Mata, Anya Goncalves Geiger, Claire Carvell, Claire Wallace, Fabrizia Ratto, Marta Barberis, Fay Kahane, Stuart Connop, Anthonie Stip, Maria Rosangela Sigrist, Nicolas J. Vereecken, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Katherine Baldock, Sarah E. J. Arnold Settling velocity and pollination dynamics in Diarrhena obovata, a grass of temperate forest edges and understories 2022-04-11T09:00:15-07:00 Phillip Klahs <p>Pollen from a naturally occurring population of the forest grass species <em>Diarrhena obovata</em> was successfully captured in a series of pollen traps to understand the timing of anthesis and the dispersal mechanics of wind pollination in an example of the flowering plant family Poaceae. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the pollen surface ornamentation as microechinate-areolate. The spherical grains have a diameter of 38.74 μm. The settling velocity calculated by Stoke’s Law was 4.48 cm s<sup>-1</sup>, but physical measurement by drop tower experiments resulted in 3.77 ± 0.15 cm s<sup>-1</sup> (sd). The surface ornamentation observed in <em>D. obovata</em> pollen is not expected to alter drag forces considerably but the reduction of settling velocity may be a result of species-specific pollen grain density. In forest grasses an improvement in settling velocity may be adaptive in overcoming dispersal constraints in an environment where trees obstruct wind speeds and create more turbulence.</p> 2022-07-12T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Phillip Klahs Pollen tube growth in Calotropis procera is controlled by environmental changes: does it have an impact on delayed fertilization? 2021-11-27T03:29:40-08:00 Adina Mishal Dan Eisikowitch <p><em>Calotropis procera</em> (Apocynaceae) is a Sudanian plant that grows throughout the eastern Saharo-Arabian region. In Israel, it grows along the Rift Valley under extremely hot and dry climatic conditions. In <em>C. procera</em>, as in many other Apocynaceae, the nectar is secreted in the flowers from the nectaries located inside the stigmatic chamber, with the excess flowing via the capillary system into special reservoirs (cucculi). The nectar has two functions: it is used as a reward to attract pollinating insects and it serves as the germination medium for pollen grains. Under natural conditions the nectar concentration is subjected to a large variability, ranging from 22-68% sucrose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of the natural fluctuations of nectar concentration on pollen germination and pollen tube growth, and their possible role in delaying fertilization in <em>Calotropis procera</em>.</p> <p>We followed the process of pollen germination under various experimental sucrose concentrations simulating the nectar. We found that the optimal concentration of a sucrose medium for pollen germination is 20%. However, if the already-germinated pollen grains are subjected to high sucrose concentration for different periods of time (between one and three hours), elongation of the pollen tubes is inhibited. In all the experimental groups, the pollen tubes renewed their elongation following a reduction of the sucrose. In conclusion, we found that <em>C. procera</em> pollen grains’ germination is able to adjust to the large fluctuations in sucrose concentration, caused by the changes in temperature and relative humidity conditions of the plant’s habitat during the day. This phenomenon probably enables postponing the fertilization towards a time of better conditions and enables the plant to retain the pollen tubes alive, albeit inactive, and thus allow the plant to overcome temporary harsh conditions and develop seeds.</p> 2022-02-25T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dan Eisikowitch, Adina Mishal Hawaiian Endemic Honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) are Nectar Robbers of the Invasive Banana Poka (Passiflora tarminiana, Passifloraceae) 2022-01-17T02:15:11-08:00 Seana Walsh Richard Pender Noah Gomes <p>The human transport and subsequent naturalization of species outside their natural ranges has led to novel interactions between introduced and native species throughout the world. Understanding how introduced species impact pollination networks is useful for both invasive species management and native species conservation and restoration. Banana poka (<em>Passiflora tarminiana</em>), a hummingbird pollinated liana native to South America, has naturalized in higher elevation forests on the islands of Kauaʻi, Maui and Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian archipelago, habitats in which endemic honeycreepers still occur. To develop an understanding of the interaction between banana poka and honeycreepers, we undertook a floral visitation study at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge on the island of Hawaiʻi where three nectivorous honeycreepers and banana poka co-occur. Two honeycreeper species, ʻiʻiwi (<em>Drepanis coccinea</em>) and Hawaiʻi ʻamakihi (<em>Chlorodrepanis virens</em>), nectar robbed all of the banana poka flowers that they visited, ostensibly due to the length of the corolla tubes (60–90 mm long) which physically inhibits both honeycreeper species from accessing nectar via the mouth of the corolla. In addition, the standing crop and sugar composition of banana poka floral nectar were assessed. Flowers produced large standing crops (375 ± 132 μL) of nectar containing 29.1 ± 1% (w/v) of sugar that was sucrose-dominant (mean: 95.6 ± 0.5% sucrose in each sample). Our observations suggest that the floral nectar of banana poka may form a substantial component of the diet of both honeycreeper species at the study site. Further research is needed to understand how infestations of banana poka affect bird pollination networks at this and other sites in Hawaiʻi.</p> 2022-04-20T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Seana Walsh, Richard Pender, Noah Gomes Flower visitors have a taste for salt, but this may have little relevance to nectar evolution: a comment on Finkelstein et al. 2022 2022-04-19T03:32:26-07:00 Graham H. Pyke Zong-Xin Ren <p>Presently no abstract&nbsp;</p> 2022-07-08T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Graham H. Pyke, Zong-Xin Ren Response to Pyke and Ren: How to study interactions 2022-07-19T05:59:26-07:00 Carrie Finkelstein Paul CaraDonna Andrea Gruver Ellen Welti Michael Kaspari Nathan Sanders <p>We published a paper in <em>Biology Letters </em>earlier this year that asks a straightforward question: might flowers with sodium-enriched nectar receive higher visitation rates from a more diverse suite of pollinators? The answer was unequivocally yes (Finkelstein et al. 2022). Pyke and Ren wrote an opinion piece (Pyke and Ren 2022) taking issue with our experiment, calling it ‘irrelevant.’ Here, we briefly respond to their criticisms.</p> 2022-07-28T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Carrie Finkelstein, Paul CaraDonna, Andrea Gruver, Ellen Welti, Michael Kaspari, Nathan Sanders The distributions of insect, wind and self pollination of plants in the Netherlands in relation to habitat types and 3D vegetation structure 2022-01-10T02:31:15-08:00 Kaixuan Pan Leon Marshall Koos Biesmeijer Geert R. de Snoo <p>Plants can be pollinated in many ways, with insect, wind and selfing as the most common modes. While it seems likely that the occurrence of pollination modes is correlated with environmental conditions, e.g. vegetation structure, and this remains uncertain. Here, we mapped the composition of pollination modes of different plant groups (woody species, herbs, and grasses) across (semi-)natural habitats and their distributions in relation to 3D vegetation structure in the Netherlands. We found insect pollination is the most common mode across (semi-)natural habitats for woody species and herbs. Woody species pollinated by insects showed an even higher percentage in dune, river swamp and swamp peat than in other habitat types, whereas herbs showed a higher percentage of insect pollination in dune than in other habitat types. Grasses were always pollinated by wind or wind-self in all habitats. Woody plants pollinated by wind showed a positive relationship with canopy densities in three different strata from 2 to 20 m vegetation, while insect pollination showed a positive relationship with the canopy density of 0.5 to 2 m vegetation. All grass presented negative relationships with canopy density. Herbs showed different relationships with canopy densities of different strata dependent on pollination modes. Insect-pollinated species increased with canopy densities of low strata but decreased with canopy density of high strata, whereas wind-pollinated species decreased with canopy density of both low and high strata. We conclude that habitat and vegetation structure are important factors driving the distribution of pollination modes.</p> 2022-04-20T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kaixuan Pan, Leon Marshall, Koos Biesmeijer, Geert R. de Snoo Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) specialized pollination is isolated from neighboring plants and pollinators 2021-11-22T12:43:13-08:00 Rijo Gabriela Alameda Diego Barro Alejandro <p>Tomato is one of the crops that require buzz pollination, for which a pollinator vibrates the tubular anthers for pollen to be released. This process is efficiently carried out by wild bees, whose distribution varies according to the geographical location and the particular characteristics of the different agroecosystems. The pollination network associated with tomato fields located in an agricultural area of ​​ Cuba was determined by field observations. In addition, it was studied whether pollination influences tomato yield, through exclusion experiments and comparing the characteristics of the fruits obtained in the presence or absence of pollinators. The pollination network consisted of 241 interactions between 12 plants, including tomato, adjacent crops such as papaya and pumpkin, and ruderal species, and 11 floral visitors, fundamentally bees, with 5 species involved. Tomato flowers were almost exclusively visited by the bee species <em>Exomalopsis pulchella</em>, capable of buzz pollination. Species of the genus <em>Exomalopsis</em> are frequent pollinators of tomato in the Neotropic. This denotes a temporary specialization in the use of tomato´s floral resources by <em>Exomalopsis pulchella</em>. <em>Apis mellifera</em> was not detected visiting tomato flowers, despite being present in the pollination network associated with the studied agroecosystem. Pollination significantly increased the dimensions of tomato fruits. <em>Exomalopsis pulchella</em> also visited the ruderal plants <em>Asteraceae</em> sp., <em>Commelinaceae</em> sp. and <em>Milleria quinqueflora</em>. This should be taken into account in the management of the ruderal plant communities that surround the tomato fields, in order to promote and guarantee the presence of the main pollinator of this crop.</p> 2022-05-03T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rijo Gabriela, Alameda Diego, Barro Alejandro Pollinators and crops in Bhutan: insect abundance improves fruit quality in Himalayan apple orchards 2022-03-17T11:17:22-07:00 Kinley Dorji Sonam Tashi Jacobus C. Biesmeijer Nicolas Leclercq Nicolas J, Vereecken Leon Marshall <p>Apples are one of the most important global crops that relies heavily on insect pollination, which has been shown to increase apple production and value. However, recent reports indicate that apple production has been declining in certain regions, including in Bhutan. One of the potential causes of declining production are pollination deficits driven by a low abundance and diversity of pollinators, a phenomenon that has received little attention in Bhutan to date. Here, we present the first study examining the diversity of flying insects in Bhutanese apple orchards in relation to apple quality. During the apple flowering season, 1,006 insects comprising 44 unique (morpho-)species from the orders Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera were recorded using a standardized method of passive and active trapping within nine different orchards in Thimphu, Paro, and Haa districts, in the western part of Bhutan. During the harvest season, 495 apples were collected from these nine orchards, and we measured five different parameters; weight, size, sugar concentration, seed number, and malformation score. The most dominant flower visitors across all orchards were honey bees (mostly <em>Apis mellifera</em>, followed by <em>A. cerana</em> and <em>A. dorsata</em>). Orchards with a higher abundance of flying insects (both managed and wild) had better apple quality (weight, size and sugar concentration). Contrary to reports from other regions of the world, flower visitor diversity did not correlate with the quality of the apples. This represents the first study reporting on apple pollination in Bhutan and highlights the importance of pollinators and reinforces the need to develop pollinator friendly practices to ensure sustainable apple production.</p> 2022-06-07T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kinley Dorji, Sonam Tashi, Jacobus C. Biesmeijer, Nicolas Leclercq, Nicolas J, Vereecken, Leon Marshall Use of botanical gardens as arks for conserving pollinators and plant-pollinator interactions: A case study from the United States Northern Great Plains 2021-07-13T01:20:43-07:00 Isabela B. Vilella-Arnizaut Diane V. Roeder Charles B. Fenster <p>Botanical gardens have contributed to plant conservation through the maintenance of both living and preserved plant specimens for decades. However, there is still a large gap in the literature about the potential conservation value that botanical gardens could provide to local pollinators. We investigated how plant-pollinator interaction network structure and diversity may differ between botanical gardens and native habitats by sampling and comparing two environments: a restored native grassland patch within a local botanical garden and fifteen native, remnant temperate grassland sites in the Northern Great Plains. We found pollinator diversity within the restored botanical garden’s native grassland patch to be at the high end of the distribution of the remnant temperate grassland sites throughout the entire flowering season. However, plant diversity and network community metrics between the two environments remained similar throughout, except that remnant temperate grasslands have more links (higher connectance) with pollinators than the garden patch. Overall, our findings demonstrate the promising role restored native grassland patches in botanical gardens could play as reservoirs for local pollinator communities by supporting plant-pollinator interactions comparable to those found in native habitat remnants in the same region.</p> 2022-07-06T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Isabela B. Vilella-Arnizaut, Diane V. Roeder, Charles B. Fenster