Journal of Pollination Ecology <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"> Journal of Pollination Ecology </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">is an </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">o</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">pen access, </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">peer-reviewed </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">journal that aims to promote the exchange of original knowledge and research in any area of pollination issues.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The associated </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pollination Magazine </a></strong></span> publishes short lay summaries of all articles published in JPE. You can also find interesting stories about pollination there.</p> </div> Enviroquest Ltd en-US Journal of Pollination Ecology 1920-7603 <p>JPE is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p><p>To assure a broader targeted audience, content will be included into databases (such as EBSCO) and directories (such as DOAJ).</p> High dependency of chilli fruit set on wild pollinators in southern India <p>Ongoing pollinator declines threaten the production of many entomophilous crops. Recent reports that yields of animal-pollinated crops in India are increasing less than pollinator-independent ones suggest the occurrence of pollen limitation. We experimentally evaluated if production of the common food crop chilli benefits from insect pollination and if crop production is constrained by lack of pollinators under field conditions. Experiments were conducted in eleven chilli fields distributed across a semi-arid agricultural landscape in Andhra Pradesh, India. The experimental treatments included open controls, open pollen-supplemented flowers, and bagged flowers for pollinator exclusion. The fruit set from the two open treatments (control and pollen supplementation) was about three times higher than that from the exclusion treatment, suggesting strong dependence on insect pollination. Control supplementation treatments did not differ, which suggests that there normally is sufficient pollination for chilli production in the area. Bees contributed 98% of flower visits. Flower visitor abundance correlated with higher fruit set, but only significantly so in the pollen supplemented treatment. While previous studies that are mostly conducted in greenhouse settings suggest that chilli reproduction does not depend much on animal pollination, our field study confirms that presence of animal pollinators increases fruit set. Future research should establish if this also applies to fruit quality and total yield. Our study highlights the importance of field-realistic experiments and warrants research on pollinator dependencies of other crops. The results have implications for crop production in an area where pollinator levels may be sufficiently high for crop pollination today but possibly not in the future due to environmental change.</p><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Johanna Yourstone Josefin Gunnarsson Henrik G Smith Hema Somanathan Copyright (c) 2021 Johanna Yourstone, Josefin Gunnarsson, Henrik G Smith, Hema Somanathan 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 65 74 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)629 Three options are better than two: compensatory nature of different pollination modes in Salix caprea L. <p align="left">Mixed pollination systems have been reported for many angiosperms. Here, we report on a dioecious willow, <em>Salix caprea</em> L., which employs three pollination modes, namely pollination by wind, nocturnal moths, and diurnal bees. In four field populations of <em>S. caprea</em> in Germany, we addressed the following questions: (a) How are the pollination modes affected by local mate availability? (b) What is the contribution of each pollination mode to seed set? (c) How does flower opening time affect pollination? We compared seed set among seven pollination treatments (wind pollination, diurnal pollination, nocturnal pollination, natural pollination, apomictic reproduction, daytime/night-time artificial pollination). Pollen limitation was observed across populations. On the other hand, limitations in mate availability affected the pollination modes differently. Insect pollination outperformed wind pollination in situations where nearby males were few or all positioned in the same direction from the females. The contribution of nocturnal moths was lower than that of the other pollen vectors. However, moth pollination worked complementarily with bee pollination in compensating for the lack of wind pollination. Furthermore, we found that the onset of flower anthesis peaked at sunset, and that cold night temperatures had no negative effect on seed set or pollen viability. Thus, nocturnal anthesis and prior pollination by moths may minimize male fitness loss due to pollen collection and grooming by bees. We suggest that <em>S. caprea</em> maximizes its fitness by combining multiple pollination modes that work in different environmental conditions, while optimizing the anthesis so that more pollen would be delivered to stigmas.</p><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Kaz Ohashi Andreas Jürgens Copyright (c) 2021 Kaz Ohashi, Andreas Jürgens 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 75 90 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)627 Taxon-specific temporal shifts in pollinating insects in mass-flowering crops and field margins in Ireland <p>In intensively cropped agricultural landscapes, the vegetation in edges and hedges (henceforth “field margins”) represents an important semi-natural habitat providing fundamental resources for insect pollinators. We surveyed the pollinating insects associated with two mass-flowering crops, apple and oilseed rape, and compared the insect fauna of the main crop with that in the field margins in the grass-dominated agricultural landscapes of Ireland. Different insect groups responded differently to the presence of the flowering crop, with honey and bumble bees more abundant in crops than margins during crop flowering, but more hover flies and butterflies in margins throughout. The composition of the insect assemblage also shifted over time due to taxon-specific changes in abundance. For example, solitary bees were most abundant early in the season, whereas hover flies peaked, and butterflies declined, in mid-summer. The temporal shift in insect community structure was associated with parallel changes in the field margin flora, and, although we found no relationship between insect abundance and abundance of field margin flowers, <em>Bombus</em> abundance and total insect abundance were positively correlated with floral diversity. After the crop flowering period, floral abundance and diversity was maintained via margin plants, but by late summer, floral resources declined. Our results confirm the importance of field margins for insect pollinators of entomophilous crops set within grass-dominated landscapes, even during the crop flowering period, and provide additional support for agri-environment schemes that protect and/or improve field margin biodiversity. The results also demonstrate that although shifts in insect and plant communities may be linked phenologically there may not always be simple relationships between insect and floral abundance and richness.</p><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Irene Bottero Simon Hodge Jane Stout Copyright (c) 2021 Irene Bottero, Simon Hodge, Jane Stout 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 90 107 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)628 Conical flower cells reduce surface gloss and improve colour signal integrity for free-flying bumblebees Colour signals of flowers facilitate detection, spontaneous preference, discrimination and flower constancy by important bee pollinators. At short distances bees orient to floral colour patterns to find a landing platform and collect nutrition, potentially improving the plants’ reproductive success when multiple flowers are visited sequentially. In addition to pigments and backscattering structures within the petals’ internal layers, the epidermal micro-structure of the petals’ surface may also influence petal reflectance properties and thus influence overall colour patterns via optical effects. Gloss, i.e., shine caused by specular reflections of incident light from smooth surfaces, may for example alter the visual appearance of surfaces including flowers. We classify the epidermal surface properties of petals from 39 species of flowering plants from 19 families by means of a cell shape index, and measure the respective surface spectral reflectance from different angles. The spontaneous behavioural preferences of free flying bumblebees (<em>Bombus terrestris</em>) for surfaces with different micro-textures was then tested using specially prepared casts of selected flower petals. We specifically tested how the petal colour as function of the angle of incident light, surface structure and bee approach angle influences bumblebees’ spontaneous choices for artificial flowers. We observe that bumblebees spontaneously prefer artificial flowers with conical-papillate micro-structures under both multidirectional illumination and under spotlight conditions if approaching against the direction of spotlight, suggesting conical cells help promote constant signals by removing gloss that may confound the integrity of colour signalling.<br /><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Sakkia Wilmsen Adrian G Dyer Klaus Lunau Copyright (c) 2021 Sakkia Wilmsen, Adrian G Dyer, Klaus Lunau 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 108 126 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)606 Escaped oilseed rape: Occurrence in the agricultural landscape and potential pollen-mediated gene flow from crop oilseed rape <p>To assess the role of feral oilseed rape (OSR) plants as resources for pollinators and avenues for gene flow, we compared occurrence of feral populations in standardized agricultural landscapes, using a landscape ecological approach. The occurrence of feral and volunteer populations was investigated in relation to differences in road length and width, number of OSR fields, and landscape scale. The potential for pollen-mediated gene flow from crop to feral oilseed rape was investigated with fluorescent dye in a field experiment. Moreover, greenhouse estimates of pollen germination rate and pollen tube growth rate were performed to get an indication of siring success in crop and feral plants. Escaped OSR occurred in 14 out of the 16 investigated landscapes, and feral populations were more common alongside large roads than small roads in large-scale landscapes. The number of plants in a habitat ranged from 1-160 individuals, with 1-19 habitats per landscape. In the field experiment with fluorescent dye, no transfer of dye was detected during early flowering in May. At the end of the flowering period in June, transfer of dye was found in 71.4% of the feral plants, showing that significant transfer, most likely by pollinators, occurred from the field to the feral plants. There was no difference in pollen germination rate between crop and feral plants. Pollen tube growth rate was significantly higher in feral oilseed rape than in the crop (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.001). Our results contribute to increased understanding of i) the utilization of feral populations by pollinators in an intensively farmed agricultural landscape, and ii) crop-feral gene flow within OSR.</p><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Tina D'Hertefeldt Catarina Anderberg Haglund Jessica Malm Åsa Lankinen Copyright (c) 2021 Tina D'Hertefeldt, Catarina Anderberg Haglund, Jessica Malm, Åsa Lankinen 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 127 137 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)631 Temperature sensitive effects of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) foraging behaviour <p class="abstractCxSpFirst">Pollinating insects are an inherent part of most terrestrial ecosystems as they provide a crucial service for most angiosperms, including numerous important crops. A decrease in pollinator populations can therefore have severe consequences for both natural ecosystems and agricultural yields. Pesticide usage has been pointed out as one of the drivers behind pollinator declines. Globally, neonicotinoids are one of the most commonly used insecticides and studies have shown that exposure at sub-lethal levels can alter foraging behaviour, ultimately negatively affecting survival.</p><p class="abstractCxSpMiddle">Using a custom-made bumblebee colony monitoring system, we examined how the number and duration of foraging bouts of bumblebees (<em>Bombus terrestris</em>) on an individual level, and hive growth rate, was affected by exposure to low (6.5 µg/L) and high (10.6 µg/L) sub-lethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin via nectar. We also examined possible interaction between clothianidin exposure and abiotic factors (temperature and precipitation), and its impact on foraging bout number and duration.</p><p class="abstractCxSpLast">Exposure to sublethal concentrations of clothianidin increased foraging bout duration in bumblebees. Furthermore, the foraging bout duration decreased with increasing temperature at both exposure concentrations, whereas the unexposed control group was not affected by temperature. Neither number of foraging bouts nor the daily rhythm of foraging bout duration was affected by clothianidin exposure or temperature. The foraging bout duration decreased with increasing precipitation in both exposed and non-exposed groups. However, we did not find any interaction between precipitation and exposure, suggesting that precipitation does not affect toxicity.</p>Our study shows the importance of semi-natural experiments and accounting for ambient factors when assessing the risk that pesticide exposure may present to pollinators. We conclude that the effect of clothianidin exposure on bumblebee foraging behaviour is temperature sensitive and that local climatic conditions and future climate change scenarios should be considered in risk assessments of clothianidin and other insecticides.<br /><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Pawel Jan Kolano Katrine Borgå Anders Nielsen Copyright (c) 2021 Pawel Jan Kolano, Malin Røyset Aarønes, Katrine Borgå, Anders Nielsen 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 138 152 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)633 Linking pollinator occurrence in field margins to pollinator visitation to a mass-flowering crop <p>Uncultivated field margins are important refugia for pollinating insects in agricultural landscapes. However, the spill-over of pollination services from field margins to adjacent crops is poorly understood. This study (i) examined the effects of landscape heterogeneity on pollinator occurrence in permanent field margins and pollinator visitation to adjacent mass-flowering turnip rape (<em>Brassica rapa </em>ssp.<em> oleifera</em>) in boreal agricultural landscapes, and (ii) tested whether pollinator abundance and species richness in field margins predict abundance and species richness of crop visitors. Pollinators visiting the crop were more affected by landscape heterogeneity than pollinators in adjacent margins. Species richness, total abundance, and the abundance of syrphid flies visiting the crop increased with increasing landscape heterogeneity, whereas, in field margins, landscape heterogeneity had little effect on pollinators. In field-dominated homogeneous landscapes, wild pollinators rarely visited the crop even if they occurred in adjacent margins, whereas in heterogeneous landscapes, differences between the two habitats were smaller. Total pollinator abundance and species richness in field margins were poor predictors of pollinator visitation to adjacent crop. However, high abundances of honeybees and bumblebees in margins were related to high numbers of crop visitors from these taxa. Our results suggest that, while uncultivated field margins help pollinators persist in boreal agricultural landscapes, they do not always result in enhanced pollinator visitation to the adjacent crop. More studies quantifying pollination service delivery from semi-natural habitats to crops in different landscape settings will help develop management approaches to support crop pollination.</p><div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> Marjaana Toivonen Irina Herzon Jenni Toikkanen Mikko Kuussaari Copyright (c) 2021 Marjaana Toivonen, Irina Herzon, Jenni Toikkanen, Mikko Kuussaari 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 153 166 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)623 Announcements for JPE <p>You have probably realised that the Journal of Pollination Ecology changed its look, coming with an updated submission system, provided by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">OJS of PKP</a>. Further changes in the near future. Find out more!</p> <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> James Thomson Copyright (c) 2021 James Thomson 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 10.26786/jpe.v28i0.654 Editorial: How worthwhile are pollination networks? <p>An occupational hazard for editors is the powerful temptation to editorialize. In pondering a possible contribution to the SCAPE Special Issue, I decided to indulge that temptation by expanding part of with my plenary address to SCAPE 2018 at Abisko into a personal comment expressing scepticism about the practice of constructing <em>pollination networks</em>. At that time, and on various occasions since, some colleagues suggested that publishing my perspective might help foster a useful conversation.</p> <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> </div> James Thomson Copyright (c) 2021 James Thomson 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 28 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)652 Testing for apomixis in an obligate pollination mutualism <p>Plants with a small number of specific pollinators may be vulnerable to fluctuations in the availability of those pollinators, which could limit plant reproductive success and even result in extinction. Plants can develop mechanisms to mitigate this risk, such as apomixis. Reproductive assurance mechanisms have been largely ignored in obligate pollination mutualisms (OPMs), that are some of the most specialised of plant-pollinator interactions. Furthermore, although OPMs are often referred to as obligate, this is rarely tested. We performed a flower-bagging experiment to test if the unisexual flowers of <em>Breynia oblongifolia </em>could set fruit in the absence of its highly specialised seed-eating moth pollinators. Surprisingly, many bagged female flowers developed fruits, suggesting apomixis. We therefore conducted a second series of experiments in which we 1) added or excluded pollinators from caged plants; and 2) surveyed a wild population for apomictic reproduction using mother-offspring genotyping. In the absence of pollinators, no fruits developed. In addition, we detected no genetic evidence for apomixis when comparing between mothers and their offspring or between adults in a wild population. We explain the production of fruits in bagged branches by our discovery that <em>B. oblongifolia</em> can retain pollinated female flowers over the winter period. These flowers develop to fruits in the spring in the absence of male flowers or pollinators. Our study thus shows that <em>B. oblongifolia </em>is unable to produce fruit in the absence of its specialist moth pollinators. Thus, the highly specific interaction between plant and pollinators appears to be truly obligate.</p> Jonathan TD Finch Sally A Power Justin A Welbergen James M Cook Copyright (c) 2021 Jonathan TD Finch, Sally A Power, Justin A Welbergen, James M Cook 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 28 167 178 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)644 Plant phylogeny as a major predictor of flower visitation by nitidulid beetles, a lineage of ancestral angiosperm pollinators <p>Plant phylogeny sometimes predicts interspecific variation in pollinator composition better than floral features, and its predictive value seems to differ among major groups of insect pollinators. Earlier findings suggesting that pollination by Plant phylogeny sometimes predicts interspecific variation in pollinator composition better than gross floral features, and its predictive value seems to differ among major groups of insect pollinators. Pollination by beetles exhibits the strongest phylogenetic signal and the strongest phylogenetic conservatism, which is particularly intriguing given that beetles were probably the pollinators of early angiosperms. We examine in this paper the relationship between plant phylogeny and flower visitation by nitidulid beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), an old monophyletic group of flower specialists and pollinators of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Using quantitative data on pollinator composition for 251 plant species (belonging to 167 genera in 46 families) from well-preserved Mediterranean montane habitats from southeastern Spain, the following questions were addressed: Is pollination by nitidulids correlated with plant phylogeny in the large species sample studied, and if it does, which are the relative importances of plant phylogeny, floral characteristics, and environmental features as predictors of nitidulid pollination in the plant assemblage studied ? Nitidulids were recorded in flowers of 25% of the plant species considered. Their distribution was significantly related to plant phylogeny, being clustered on certain lineages (Ranunculales, Malvales, Rosales, Asterales) and remarkably absent from others (e.g., Fabales, Lamiales). None of the environmental (habitat type, elevation) or macroscopic floral features considered (perianth type and color, flower mass) predicted nitidulid visitation after statistically accounting for the effect of plant phylogeny. We theorize that nitidulid beetles use characters of plants that track plant phylogeny at least as deep as the early radiation of the eudicots, imaginably characters such as the chemical signatures of pollen.</p> Carlos M Herrera Carlos Otero Copyright (c) 2021 Carlos M Herrera, Carlos Otero 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 28 179 188 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)636 Pollination and nectar larceny by birds and bees in novel forests of the Hawaiian Islands <p>The extinction of native species and introduction of non-native species may lead to the disruption of biotic interactions. Pollination is a critical ecosystem process that often requires mutualisms between animals and plants. Non-native animals may interact with native flowering plants, with the potential to pollinate or steal nectar (larceny) from flowers without pollination. In the Hawaiian Islands, many native plants have lost their original pollinators. Birds and insects are known to visit native plant flowers, but it is unclear whether they pollinate or steal nectar, whether native and non-native species differ in their interactions with flowers, and what influences visitation to flowers. On Oʻahu, we deployed camera traps and conducted in-person observations on four at-risk species of Hawaiian lobelioids (Campanulaceae). We observed birds, mammals, and insects visiting flowers, with a native bird and native bee visiting most frequently. Regardless of native versus non-native status, bees made contact with reproductive structures during most visits (90.5% of visits), while birds stole nectar during most visits (99.3% of visits). Bee and bird visitation increased with the number of flowers on focal plants. Bird visitation also increased with canopy cover and the number of nearby conspecific flowers and decreased with the number of nearby heterospecific flowers. Our results indicate that bees may pollinate plants that were historically bird-pollinated, while native and non-native birds have neutral or negative impacts on these plants. Broadly, we contribute to an understanding of how native plant pollination can be altered in changing ecosystems.</p> Pryce W Millikin Samuel B. Case Corey E Tarwater Copyright (c) 2021 Pryce W Millikin, Samuel B. Case, Corey E Tarwater 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 28 189 203 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)640