Journal of Pollination Ecology <div id="ConnectiveDocSignExtentionInstalled" data-extension-version="1.0.4"> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"> Journal of Pollination Ecology </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">is an </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">o</span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">pen access, </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">peer-reviewed </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">journal that aims to promote the exchange of original knowledge and research in any area of pollination issues.</span></p> <p><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;">The associated </span><span style="font-family: Verdana; color: black;"><strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Pollination Magazine </a></strong></span> publishes short lay summaries of all articles published in JPE. You can also find interesting stories about pollination there.</p> </div> Enviroquest Ltd en-US Journal of Pollination Ecology 1920-7603 <p>JPE is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p><p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p><p>To assure a broader targeted audience, content will be included into databases (such as EBSCO) and directories (such as DOAJ).</p> Testing for apomixis in an obligate pollination mutualism <p>Plants with a small number of specific pollinators may be vulnerable to fluctuations in the availability of those pollinators, which could limit plant reproductive success and even result in extinction. Plants can develop mechanisms to mitigate this risk, such as apomixis. Reproductive assurance mechanisms have been largely ignored in obligate pollination mutualisms (OPMs), that are some of the most specialised of plant-pollinator interactions. Furthermore, although OPMs are often referred to as obligate, this is rarely tested. We performed a flower-bagging experiment to test if the unisexual flowers of <em>Breynia oblongifolia </em>could set fruit in the absence of its highly specialised seed-eating moth pollinators. Surprisingly, many bagged female flowers developed fruits, suggesting apomixis. We therefore conducted a second series of experiments in which we 1) added or excluded pollinators from caged plants; and 2) surveyed a wild population for apomictic reproduction using mother-offspring genotyping. In the absence of pollinators, no fruits developed. In addition, we detected no genetic evidence for apomixis when comparing between mothers and their offspring or between adults in a wild population. We explain the production of fruits in bagged branches by our discovery that <em>B. oblongifolia</em> can retain pollinated female flowers over the winter period. These flowers develop to fruits in the spring in the absence of male flowers or pollinators. Our study thus shows that <em>B. oblongifolia </em>is unable to produce fruit in the absence of its specialist moth pollinators. Thus, the highly specific interaction between plant and pollinators appears to be truly obligate.</p> Jonathan TD Finch Sally A Power Justin A Welbergen James M Cook Copyright (c) 2021 Jonathan TD Finch, Sally A Power, Justin A Welbergen, James M Cook 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 167 178 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)644 Plant phylogeny as a major predictor of flower visitation by nitidulid beetles, a lineage of ancestral angiosperm pollinators <p>Plant phylogeny sometimes predicts interspecific variation in pollinator composition better than floral features, and its predictive value seems to differ among major groups of insect pollinators. Earlier findings suggesting that pollination by Plant phylogeny sometimes predicts interspecific variation in pollinator composition better than gross floral features, and its predictive value seems to differ among major groups of insect pollinators. Pollination by beetles exhibits the strongest phylogenetic signal and the strongest phylogenetic conservatism, which is particularly intriguing given that beetles were probably the pollinators of early angiosperms. We examine in this paper the relationship between plant phylogeny and flower visitation by nitidulid beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), an old monophyletic group of flower specialists and pollinators of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Using quantitative data on pollinator composition for 251 plant species (belonging to 167 genera in 46 families) from well-preserved Mediterranean montane habitats from southeastern Spain, the following questions were addressed: Is pollination by nitidulids correlated with plant phylogeny in the large species sample studied, and if it does, which are the relative importances of plant phylogeny, floral characteristics, and environmental features as predictors of nitidulid pollination in the plant assemblage studied ? Nitidulids were recorded in flowers of 25% of the plant species considered. Their distribution was significantly related to plant phylogeny, being clustered on certain lineages (Ranunculales, Malvales, Rosales, Asterales) and remarkably absent from others (e.g., Fabales, Lamiales). None of the environmental (habitat type, elevation) or macroscopic floral features considered (perianth type and color, flower mass) predicted nitidulid visitation after statistically accounting for the effect of plant phylogeny. We theorize that nitidulid beetles use characters of plants that track plant phylogeny at least as deep as the early radiation of the eudicots, imaginably characters such as the chemical signatures of pollen.</p> Carlos M Herrera Carlos Otero Copyright (c) 2021 Carlos M Herrera, Carlos Otero 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 29 179 188 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)636 Pollination and nectar larceny by birds and bees in novel forests of the Hawaiian Islands <p>The extinction of native species and introduction of non-native species may lead to the disruption of biotic interactions. Pollination is a critical ecosystem process that often requires mutualisms between animals and plants. Non-native animals may interact with native flowering plants, with the potential to pollinate or steal nectar (larceny) from flowers without pollination. In the Hawaiian Islands, many native plants have lost their original pollinators. Birds and insects are known to visit native plant flowers, but it is unclear whether they pollinate or steal nectar, whether native and non-native species differ in their interactions with flowers, and what influences visitation to flowers. On Oʻahu, we deployed camera traps and conducted in-person observations on four at-risk species of Hawaiian lobelioids (Campanulaceae). We observed birds, mammals, and insects visiting flowers, with a native bird and native bee visiting most frequently. Regardless of native versus non-native status, bees made contact with reproductive structures during most visits (90.5% of visits), while birds stole nectar during most visits (99.3% of visits). Bee and bird visitation increased with the number of flowers on focal plants. Bird visitation also increased with canopy cover and the number of nearby conspecific flowers and decreased with the number of nearby heterospecific flowers. Our results indicate that bees may pollinate plants that were historically bird-pollinated, while native and non-native birds have neutral or negative impacts on these plants. Broadly, we contribute to an understanding of how native plant pollination can be altered in changing ecosystems.</p> Pryce W Millikin Samuel B. Case Corey E Tarwater Copyright (c) 2021 Pryce W Millikin, Samuel B. Case, Corey E Tarwater 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 29 189 203 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)640 The importance of wild bee communities as urban pollinators and the influence of honeybee hive density While urban beekeeping is on the rise, data on the role of wild bee communities as crop pollinators in cities is still scarce. We analysed wild bee visitation rates on apple, plum, cherry, pear, blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry in a Bavarian city with a very high honeybee density of c. 19 hives/km<sup>2</sup>. During 137.5 hours of observation time, we observed 52 wild bee species on the studied crop plants. During more than 50 h of observation time on fruit trees in flower, we found that wild bees provided 41% of the total bee visits, honeybees the remaining 59%. Honeybee hive density had a significantly negative effect on wild bee abundance. Bumblebees appeared more tolerant to poor weather conditions than all other bee groups. Wild bee species richness on apple flowers was not significantly impacted by flower diversity in the surroundings of the trees. Together, our results suggest that species-rich wild bee communities in urban areas are important for pollination success in common fruit crops, especially under unstable spring weather conditions. Bee-friendly management of urban spaces should be prioritised to support wild bee communities as well as the increasing number of honeybees in cities. Julie Anne Weissmann Iris Rebecca Magdalena Walldorf Hanno Schaefer Copyright (c) 2021 Julie Anne Weissmann, Iris Rebecca Magdalena Walldorf, Hanno Schaefer 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 204 230 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)641 Open-top warming chambers reduce animal pollination of two subalpine herbs <p>Open top chambers (OTCs) are a popular method for studying the biological effects of climate change through passive heating, but their effects on biotic interactions are poorly understood, especially for pollination. Here we use the subalpine plants <em>Delphinium nuttallianum </em>and <em>Potentilla pulcherrima</em> to examine the possibility that the effects of OTCs on plant reproduction are not the result of warming but rather OTCs acting as barriers to pollinator movement. Pollinator observations were conducted and stigmas collected from plants inside and outside of OTCs in a meadow in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA. Very few visitors were observed inside of OTCs, which led to severe reductions in visitation rates, by 92% in <em>Delphinium </em>and 85% in <em>Potentilla</em>. The number of conspecific pollen grains on stigmas was 73% lower in OTCs for <em>Delphinium</em> but not <em>Potentilla</em>, likely because it is capable of autogamous self-pollination. This study clearly shows that OTCs can reduce animal pollination, which is also likely to reduce plant reproductive output of outcrossing plants via decreases in the quantity or quality of pollen. OTCs may therefore confound effects of warming on plant reproduction with pollination effects. Although the unintended effects of OTCs on abiotic conditions are well-studied, this study highlights that their effects on biotic interactions require further investigation.</p> Carter Perez Adamson Amy Iler Copyright (c) 2021 Carter Perez Adamson, Amy Iler 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 231 239 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)638 Catching the thief: Nectar robbing behaviour by bumblebees on naturalised Fuchsia magellanica in Ireland <p><span lang="EN-GB"><em>Fuchsia magellanica</em> (Ongaraceae) is a plant with a traditionally ornithopholous pollination system, pollinated primarily by hummingbirds in its native range. As a naturalised alien plant in Ireland, <em>F. magellanica</em> is visited largely by bumblebees, with evidence for nectar robbing behaviour of the long-tubed flowers. We aimed to investigate nectar robbing behaviour of bumblebees on <em>F. magellanica</em>, and in particular whether floral and pollinator traits (size) determined likelihood of nectar robbing. While <em>F. magellanica</em> was visited by a number of bumblebee species, only two with shorter tongue lengths were observed to rob nectar from flowers. Although there was no observed relationship between intra-specific bee body size and nectar robbing behaviour, nectar robbing was observed most frequently in the site with the highest number of bees. Proportions of robbed flowers were low overall and varied between populations, but there was a significant relationship between flower size and whether it was nectar robbed with larger flowers robbed more often. Our work suggests that floral size determines whether a flower-visitor will choose to nectar rob or not in this system. Nectar robbing may also be related to bee density which could suggest this behaviour is driven by competition for resources, or that it is learnt by observing other bees. <br /></span></p> Dara Anne Stanley Emmeline Cosnett Copyright (c) 2021 Dara Anne Stanley, Emmeline Cosnett 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 240 248 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)620 Consequences of the high abundance of Bombus terrestris on the pollination of Vicia faba <p>One of the main visitors to Fabia bean crops (<em>Vicia faba)</em> in South America is the invasive bumblebee species <em>Bombus terrestris</em>. This is particularly true in Chile, where <em>B. terrestris</em> was first introduced in 1997 and is now common over much of the country. In this study, we evaluated the activity of the principal pollinators of <em>V. faba</em> over two cropping seasons by assessing their visitation rates while distinguishing between legitimate visits, likely to lead to pollination, and nectar robbery. We then determined the net contribution of insect visitation on pod and seed set. We recorded seven species of floral visitors. Most visits (legitimate visits and robbery) were from the honeybee (<em>Apis mellifera</em>), with <em>B. terrestris</em> being the next most common visitor. In the case of <em>B</em>.<em> terrestris,</em> 87.19% of visits were nectar robbery. On average, the same flower perforation was visited 23 times by <em>B. terrestris</em> during the flower's lifespan. In general, the frequency of legitimate visits varied with pollinator identity and year. For <em>B. terrestris,</em> each flower received an average of 0.95 legitimate visits during its entire lifespan. The time spent by <em>B. terrestris</em> visiting flowers for both nectar robbery or pollen collection decreased after the first day of flowering suggesting resource depletion. The number of pods, total seed number, and seed weight were lower where self rather than open pollination. This suggests that open pollination increased reproductive success. We conclude that <em>B. terrestris</em> was likely to contribute relatively little to pollination while at the same time depleting floral resources throughout the flowers’ lifespan.</p> Cecilia Smith-Ramirez Adriana Rendón-Funes Rodrigo Barahona-Segovia Wladimir Moya Copyright (c) 2021 Cecilia Smith, Adriana Rendón, Rodrigo Barahona, Wladimir Moya 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 258´ 272 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)630 An updated insect exclosure design for pollination ecology <p>Exclosures are a common method for quantifying the effects of animal pollinators on flowering plant species. However, a lack of standardized designs or clear descriptions of previously implemented exclosure designs decreases replicability in pollination studies and reduces scientific rigor. We summarized previous descriptions of pollination exclosure designs, and developed/tested a novel exclosure design in alpine environments on the Beartooth Plateau in northern Wyoming, USA. This exclosure design consists of a cylindrical internal wire frame, integrated ground stakes, and various mesh materials attached to the exterior. Exclosures on the plateau showed high efficacy in inhibiting insects from pollinating flowering plants, and nearly all of these exclosures remained functional throughout the time they were in place. Our updated exclosure design is effective, inexpensive, easy to produce, and widely applicable across differing ecosystems and experimental design types.</p> Troy Tetreault Ken Aho Copyright (c) 2021 Troy Tetreault, Ken Aho 2021-10-15 2021-10-15 29 249 257 10.26786/1920-7603(2021)651