Endosymbionts that threaten commercially raised and wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.)


  • Laura L. Figueroa University of Massachussetts and Cornell University
  • Ben M. Sadd Illinois State University https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3136-5144
  • Amber D. Tripodi Unaffiliated
  • James P. Strange Pennsylvania State University
  • Sheila R. Colla York University https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9621-8607
  • Laurie Davies Adams Pollinator Partnership
  • Michelle A. Duennes Saint Vincent College
  • Elaine C. Evans University of Minnesota https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7190-829X
  • David M. Lehmann US - Environmental Protection Agency https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0174-344X
  • Heather Moylett Unaffiliated
  • Leif Richardson The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation
  • James W. Smith Retired USDA APHIS
  • Tamara A. Smith U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Edward M. Spevak Saint Louis Zoo https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8380-7023
  • David W. Inouye University of Maryland Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory




parasites, pathogens, Bombus, bumble bee, symbionts


Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators for both wild and agriculturally managed plants. We give an overview of what is known about the diverse community of internal potentially deleterious bumble bee symbionts, including viruses, bacteria, protozoans, fungi, and nematodes, as well as methods for their detection, quantification, and control. We also provide information on assessment of risk for select bumble bee symbionts and highlight key knowledge gaps. This information is crucial for ongoing efforts to establish parasite-free programs for future commerce in bumble bees for crop pollination, and to mitigate the problems with pathogen spillover to wild populations.



How to Cite

Figueroa, L., Sadd, B., Tripodi, A., Strange, J., Colla, S., Adams, L., … Inouye, D. W. (2023). Endosymbionts that threaten commercially raised and wild bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Journal of Pollination Ecology, 33, 14–36. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2023)713




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