Different semi-natural habitat types provide complementary nesting resources for wild bees





land use, landscape composition, pollinators, biodiversity conservation


Semi-natural habitats provide refuge for pollinating insects such as wild bees. Different types of semi-natural habitat can provide complementary floral resources throughout the year, but it is uncertain to what extent different semi-natural habitat types provide nesting habitat for wild bees. In this study, nesting resources for wild bees and nest-searching bees were surveyed visually in three different types of semi-natural habitat (i.e., hollow roads, tree rows, and forest edges). The composition of nesting resources for wild bees varied across the three types of semi-natural habitat. We also identified clear indicators of nesting resources within the different habitat types. We conclude that different types of semi-natural habitat provide varying and complementary nesting resources for wild bees. This study further highlights the importance of semi-natural habitat for pollinator conservation and emphasizes the need for further research to increase our understanding how different wild bee species use different habitat types for nesting.

Author Biographies

Maxime Eeraerts, Michigan State University



Rufus Isaacs, Michigan State University




Anderson MJ, Walsh DCI (2013) PERMANOVA, ANOSIM, and the Mantel test in the face of heterogeneous dispersions: What null hypothesis are you testing? Ecological Monographs, 83:557–574. http://doi.org/10.1890/12-2010.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/12-2010.1

Antoine CM, Forrest JRK (2021) Nesting habitat of ground-nesting bees: a review. Ecological Entomology, 46:143–159. http://doi.org/10.1111/een.12986 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12986

Ariza D, Meeus I, Eeraerts M, Pisman M, Smagghe G (2022) Linking remote sensing data to the estimation of pollination services in agroecosystems. Ecological Applications, 32:1–14. http://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2605 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2605

Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S (2019) lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R Package Version 1.1-21. Retrieved on 30 December 2019 from https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/lme4/lme4.pdf

Buckles BJ, Harmon-Threatt AN (2019) Bee diversity in tallgrass prairies affected by management and its effects on above- and below-ground resources. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56:2443–2453. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13479 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13479

Coates JM, Brown J, Cunningham SA (2022) Wild bees nest in the stems of cultivated Rubus plants and act as effective crop pollinators. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 325:107741. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2021.107741 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2021.107741

Dainese M, Martin EA, Aizen MA, et. al. (2019) A global synthesis reveals biodiversity-mediated benefits for crop production. Science Advances, 5:eaax0121 16. http://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0121 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0121

De Cáceres M, Legendre P, Moretti M (2010) Improving indicator species analysis by combining groups of sites. Oikos, 119:1674–1684. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18334.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18334.x

Eeraerts M (2023) A minimum of 15% semi-natural habitat facilitates adequate wild pollinator visitation to a pollinator-dependent crop. Biological Conservation, 278:109887. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109887 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109887

Eeraerts M, Clymans R, Van Kerckvoorde R, Beliën T (2022) Nesting material, phenology and landscape complecity influence nesting success of a trap nesting bee. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 332:107951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2022.107951 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2022.107951

Eeraerts M, Van Den Berge S, Proesmans W, Verheyen K, Smagghe G, Meeus I (2021) Fruit orchards and woody semi-natural habitat provide complementary resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 36:1377–1390. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-021-01220-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-021-01220-y

Falk S, Lewington R (2017) Bijen: Veldgids voor Nederland en Vlaanderen. Kosmos Uitgevers, Utrecht/Antwerpen.

Goulson D, Nicholls E, Botías C, Rotheray EL (2015) Bee declines driven by combined stress from parasites, pesticides, and lack of flowers. Science, 347:1–16. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255957 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1255957

Harmon-Threatt A (2020) Influence of nesting characteristics on health of wild bee communities. Annual Review of Entomology, 65:39–56. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011019-024955 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ento-011019-024955

Hartig F (2019) DHARMa: Residual diagnostics for hierarchical (multi-level/mixed) regression models. R package version 0.2.6. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/DHARMa/vignettes/DHARMa.html. Accessed 30 Dec 2019

Heneberg P, Bogusch P (2020) Identification of a previously overlooked anthropogenic habitat that attracts diverse assemblages of threatened bees and wasps. Ecological Engineering, 147:105759. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2020.105759 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2020.105759

Hopfenmüller S, Holzschuh A, Steffan-Dewenter I (2020) Effects of grazing intensity, habitat area and connectivity on snail-shell nesting bees. Biological Conservation, 24:108406. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108406 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108406

Kells AR, Goulson D (2003) Preferred nesting sites of bumblebee queens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in agroecosystems in the UK. Biological Conservation, 109:165–174. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00131-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00131-3

Kleijn D, Kohler F, Báldi A, et. al. (2009) On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe. Proceeding of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 276:903-909. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1509 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1509

Lindström SAM, Rundlöf M, Herbertsson L (2022) Simple and farmer-friendly bumblebee conservation: Straw bales as nest sites in agricultural landscapes. Basic and Applied Ecology, 63:196–205. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.06.008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2022.06.008

MacIvor JS (2017) Cavity-nest boxes for solitary bees: a century of design and research. Apidologie, 48:311–327. http://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-016-0477-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13592-016-0477-z

Mandelik Y, Winfree R, Neeson T, Kremen C (2012) Complementary habitat use by wild bees in agro-natural landscapes. Ecological Applications, 22 :1535–1546. http://doi.org/10.1890/11-1299.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761-22.5.1535

Maurer C, Sutter L, Martínez-Núñez C, Pellissier L, Albrecht M (2022) Different types of semi- ¬ natural habitat are required to sustain diverse wild bee communities across agricultural landscapes. Journal of Applied Ecology, 59:2604-2615. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14260 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14260

Martínez-Núñez C, Kleijn D, Ganuza C, Heupink D, Raemakers I, Vertommen W, Fijen TPM (2022) Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of semi-natural habitat, but not crop diversity, is correlated with landscape pollinator richness. Journal of Applied Ecology, 59:1258–1267. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14137 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.14137

Nichols RN, Holland J, Goulson D (2020) Methods for creating bare ground on farmland in Hampshire, UK, and their effectiveness at recruiting ground-nesting solitary bees. Conservation Evidence, 17:15–18.

O’connor S, Park KJ, Goulson D (2017) Location of bumblebee nests is predicted by counts of nest-searching queens. Ecological Entomology, 42:731–736. http://doi.org/10.1111/een.12440 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12440

Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Friendly M, et. al. (2019) Vegan: Community ecology package. R package Version 2.5-6. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/vegan.pdf. Accessed 30 Dec 2019

Potts SG, Vulliamy B, Roberts S, O’Toole C, Dafni A, Ne’eman G, Willmer P (2005) Role of nesting resources in organising diverse bee communities in a Mediterranean landscape. Ecological Entomology, 30:78–85. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00662.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00662.x

R Development Core Team (2020) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Sardiñas HS, Kremen C (2014) Evaluating nesting microhabitat for ground-nesting bees using emergence traps. Basic and Applied Ecology, 15:161–168. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2014.02.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2014.02.004

Schellhorn NA, Gagic V, Bommarco R (2015) Time will tell: Resource continuity bolsters ecosystem services. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 30:524–530. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.06.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2015.06.007

Timberlake TP, Vaughan IP, Memmott J (2019) Phenology of farmland floral resources reveals seasonal gaps in nectar availability for bumblebees. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56:1585–1596. http://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13403 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13403

Tsiolis K, Potts SG, Garratt MPD, Tilston EL, Burman J, Rintoul-Hynes NLJ, Fountain MT (2022) The Importance of Soil and Vegetation Characteristics for Establishing Ground-Nesting Bee Aggregations. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 31:186–200. http://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2022)682 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2022)682

Winfree R (2010) The conservation and restoration of wild bees. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1195:169-197. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05449.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05449.x



How to Cite

Eeraerts, M., & Isaacs, R. (2023). Different semi-natural habitat types provide complementary nesting resources for wild bees. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 34, 101–107. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2023)726

Most read articles by the same author(s)

  • Jeff Ollerton, Judith Trunschke, Kayri Havens, Patricia Landaverde-González, Alexander Keller, Amy-Marie Gilpin, André Rodrigo Rech, Gudryan J. Baronio, Benjamin J. Phillips, Chris Mackin, Dara A. Stanley, Erin Treanore, Ellen Baker, Ellen L. Rotheray, Emily Erickson, Felix Fornoff, Francis Q. Brearley, Gavin Ballantyne, Graziella Iossa, Graham N. Stone, Ignasi Bartomeus, Jenni A. Stockan, Johana Leguizamón, Kit Prendergast, Lisa Rowley, Manuela Giovanetti, Raquel de Oliveira Bueno, Renate A. Wesselingh, Rachel Mallinger, Sally Edmondson, Scarlett R. Howard, Sara D. Leonhardt, Sandra V. Rojas-Nossa, Maisie Brett, Tatiana Joaqui, Reuber Antoniazzi, Victoria J. Burton, Hui-Hui Feng, Zhi-Xi Tian, Qi Xu, Chuan Zhang, Chang-Li Shi, Shuang-Quan Huang, Lorna J. Cole, Leila Bendifallah, Emilie E. Ellis, Stein Joar Hegland, Sara Straffon Díaz, Tonya Allen Lander, Antonia V. Mayr, Richard Dawson, Maxime Eeraerts, W. Scott Armbruster, Becky Walton, Noureddine Adjlane, Steven Falk, Luis Mata, Anya Goncalves Geiger, Claire Carvell, Claire Wallace, Fabrizia Ratto, Marta Barberis, Fay Kahane, Stuart Connop, Anthonie Stip, Maria Rosangela Sigrist, Nicolas J. Vereecken, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Katherine Baldock, Sarah E. J. Arnold, Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020 , Journal of Pollination Ecology: Vol. 32 (2022)

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.