Important pollinator species for conserving rare plant species endemic to San Clemente Island, California

Authors

  • Jenny Hazlehurst California State University East Bay in Hawyard
  • Stephanie Calloway Eldorado National Forest, Pacific Ranger District, 7887 Highway 50, Pollock Pines, CA
  • Denise Knapp Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Rd, Santa Barbara, CA

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2023)729

Keywords:

California Channel Islands, Endangered species, pollination, conservation

Abstract

Much effort has been spent on the conservation of rare, threatened, and endangered plants in the biodiversity hotspot of the California Floristic Province, however little is known about the identity of their pollinators. In this study we provide the first formal study on the identity of the invertebrate pollinators of five rare endemic island plant species from San Clemente Island, the southernmost of the California Channel Islands: Delphinium variegatum ssp kinkiense, Lithophragma maximum, Malacothamnus clementinus, Malva assurgentiflora ssp glabra, and Sibara filifolia. We surveyed plant-pollinator interactions at populations of each focal plant species using timed sweep-netting. We used pollinator capture data to compile bipartite interaction networks for each plant population, and calculated centrality indices (degree, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality) of pollinators to identify species important to network stability. We found a significant effect of pollinator taxonomic group (fly, bee, wasp, or Lepidopteran) on some indices of pollinator centrality in interaction networks, and variation in pollinator centrality between different locations. Hoverflies, moths, and butterflies were important generalists with higher network centrality across all plant populations, while bees tended to be more specialists within their networks, except for the Malva assurgentiflora ssp glabra network, where bees were on average of higher centrality than flies. We recommend targeted restoration practices for future study that could support pollination both directly and indirectly to focal rare plant species of conservation interest across plant populations. These practices could augment general pollinator conservation best practices such as reducing pesticide use and planting native plant species to provide increased pollination to endangered plants.

Author Biography

Denise Knapp, Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, 1212 Mission Canyon Rd, Santa Barbara, CA

 

 

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Published

2023-11-14

How to Cite

Hazlehurst, J., Calloway, S., & Knapp, D. (2023). Important pollinator species for conserving rare plant species endemic to San Clemente Island, California. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 33, 207–227. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2023)729

Issue

Section

Early View

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