Foraging dynamics and pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera and Xylocopa olivacea on Luffa aegyptiaca Mill (Cucurbitaceae) in southern Ghana
Keywords:nectar concentration, nectar energetics, foraging dynamics, cucurbit plants
AbstractAs a result of different levels of pollination efficiency of pollinators, knowledge on appropriate pollinators of a plant has become important, especially in the management and conservation of both the pollinators and the plants. In this study, the pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera and Xylocopa olivacea, important pollinators of Luffa aegyptiaca, were assessed in the southern coastal part of Ghana from June 2009 to September 2010. Pollination efficiency of A. mellifera and X. olivacea was estimated in terms of fruit set and fruit size. Further, data on daily and seasonal nectar dynamics of Luffa aegyptiaca were collected. In the early mornings (0600-0700), X. olivacea was the most frequent visitor (0.47 min-1) on the female flowers compared to A. mellifera (0.13 min-1). The mean nectar (sugar) concentration in the dry season was 36.58 ± 0.55 %, which was higher than the 34.03 ± 0.38 % obtained for the rainy season (F = 14.986; df = 2; P < 0.0001). Total amount of sugar in the early mornings was 1.88 ± 0.37 mg which was higher than 0.28 ± 0.04 mg in the mid mornings (χ2 = 14.33, df = 1, P < 0.0001). Fruits that developed from flowers that had received a single visit from X. olivacea had a mean weight of 428.7g and were 1.5 times heavier than fruits from flowers visited by A. mellifera (286.76 g). X. olivacea was more efficient than A. mellifera in terms of number of fruit set per single visit. This study has provided some knowledge on pollination ecology of L. aegyptiaca, which can be exploited to improve fruit production in commercially grown vine crops.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Ben Mensah, Andreas Kudom
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
JPE is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
To assure a broader targeted audience, content will be included into databases (such as EBSCO) and directories (such as DOAJ).